On this day: November 9

Published On: Nov 08 2012 09:01:03 PM CST   Updated On: Nov 09 2014 01:00:00 AM CST

Pilgrims on the Mayflower spot land, Jack the Ripper kills for the last time, the PGA integrates, Rolling Stone magazine debuts, and the Berlin Wall begins to fall, all on this day.

OTD November 9 - Kristallnacht
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Private Collection/Wikimedia Commons

1938: Nazi troops and sympathizers destroy and loot 7,500 Jewish businesses, burn 267 synagogues, kill 91 Jews, and round up more than 25,000 Jewish men throughout Germany and parts of Austria in an event that became known as Kristallnacht or "Night of Broken Glass." The pretext for the attacks was the assassination of German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan, a German-born Polish Jew, in Paris, France. Kristallnacht was followed by further economic and political persecution of Jews, and is viewed by historians as the beginning of the Final Solution and the Holocaust.

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